Tissue Engineering


Results of the study



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All patient were able to tolerate the cystoplasty. No complications were noted.3 Postoperative follow up of the patients at 61 months showed that the patients had regained the compliance and contractibility of a normal bladder function. As shown in figure 5 and table 1, we see a notable increase in compliance and volume.

Figure 5: (A) Preoperation, notice the huge fluctuation on the cystogram. (B) Here we see the smooth cystogram of the patient after the operation.3


Table 1: Shows the follow up of the patients for up to 61 months. It should be noted that patient 1 required additional surgery after 4 years, this particular patient had a 30% smaller reservoir than the other individuals.3


With the exception of patient 1, we see that the patient's leak pressure has shifted to be lower and it was noted that patients did not leak urine frequently as they had preoperatively.3


They had shown a dramatic improvement in some function in controlling their bladder compliance and peak pressures. A further biopsy of the implanted tissue shown in figure 6 has shown the growth and presence of a trilayered structure which resembles that of a bladder tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis and histological strainings for markers which are phenotypical for smooth muscle and theurothelium are also present in figure 6.

Figure 6: Biopsies of the bladders were taken at 31 months. A-C is the engineered bladder tissue. D-F shows normal bladder tissue. Note that A-C has the similar tissue layers such as that of the actual bladder tissue.


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