Recently, advances in the medical sciences are leading to an increasing number of implantable electrically-operated devices, such as pacemakers, defibrillators, insulin pumps, drug delivery systems, etc. These implants need power supplies that operate for extremely long periods of time as maintenance would necessitate surgery. Currently, all the implantable medical devices are using inconvenient primary (non-rechargeable) or secondary (rechargeable) batteries, such as Li/iodide and Li-ion batteries, which have several serious drawbacks in terms of safety, reliability and scalability. Ideally, implanted devices would take advantage of natural fuels in the body and would continue to draw power as long as the subject lives. Biofuel cells, which adapt nature’s solution to energy generation by converting biochemical energy into electrical energy, potentially offer such a solution..

Different batteries put to use currrently use harmful, non biological chemicals